‘Taxable income’ refers to the portion of an individual’s or entity’s income that is subject to taxation by the government. It is the income amount used as the basis for calculating the income tax owed to the tax authorities.
Here are key aspects related to taxable income:
Income Sources: Taxable income includes various types of income earned by individuals or entities. This can include salary or wages, business profits, rental income, investment income (such as interest, dividends, or capital gains), pension or retirement income, and other forms of taxable income recognized by the tax laws of a specific jurisdiction.
Deductions and Exemptions: In calculating taxable income, certain deductions, exemptions, or allowances may be allowed by tax laws. These are specific expenses, allowances, or exemptions that reduce the overall taxable income amount. Examples of deductions or exemptions can include business expenses, qualified medical expenses, mortgage interest payments, charitable contributions, or specific tax credits.
Taxable Income Calculation: The calculation of taxable income generally involves subtracting allowable deductions, exemptions, or allowances from total income. The resulting amount is the taxable income. The specific tax rules and rates applied to taxable income vary by jurisdiction and are typically outlined in the tax laws or regulations.
Marginal Tax Rates: Once taxable income is determined, it is used to determine the applicable tax rate or tax bracket for calculating the income tax liability. Tax systems often have progressive tax rates, where higher levels of taxable income are subject to higher tax rates. Marginal tax rates are applied to different income brackets, meaning that different portions of taxable income are taxed at different rates.
Tax Liability: The taxable income is used to calculate the income tax liability owed to the government. The tax liability is generally calculated by applying the applicable tax rates to the taxable income. However, additional factors such as tax credits or alternative minimum tax calculations may also come into play in determining the final tax liability.
It’s important to note that tax laws and regulations vary by jurisdiction, so the specific rules and calculations related to taxable income may differ depending on the country or region in question. Taxable income serves as the basis for determining the income tax liability individuals or entities owe to the government and is a key factor in personal and business tax planning and compliance.