What is Knowledge Management?

‘Knowledge management (KM)’ refers to the systematic process of creating, organising, capturing, storing, retrieving, and sharing knowledge within an organisation to improve efficiency, innovation, decision-making, and overall performance. It involves the strategies, practices, and technologies used to identify, acquire, develop, store, and distribute knowledge assets, which include information, data, expertise, experiences, and insights.


Key components and concepts of knowledge management include:

Knowledge Creation: The process of generating new knowledge or insights through research, innovation, collaboration, and learning within the organisation. This often involves converting tacit knowledge (personal, experience-based knowledge) into explicit knowledge (documented, codified knowledge).

Knowledge Capture: The collection and documentation of knowledge from various sources, such as employees, customers, partners, and external resources. Captured knowledge can include best practices, lessons learned, and expertise.

Knowledge Storage: The organisation and management of knowledge assets in repositories, databases, intranets, content management systems, and other digital or physical formats. Knowledge storage should be easily accessible and well-organised.

Knowledge Retrieval: The ability to search for and retrieve relevant knowledge when needed. Effective search tools, indexing, and metadata are essential for efficient knowledge retrieval.

Knowledge Sharing: Encouraging and facilitating the sharing of knowledge among employees and across departments or teams. This can include knowledge-sharing platforms, communities of practice, mentoring programs, and collaboration tools.

Knowledge Transfer: The process of transferring knowledge from one individual or group to another, often as part of succession planning or onboarding new employees.

Knowledge Application: Using knowledge to solve problems, make informed decisions, improve processes, and drive innovation within the organisation. Knowledge should be applied effectively to add value.

Continuous Learning: Promoting a culture of continuous learning and improvement where employees are encouraged to acquire, update, and expand their knowledge and skills.

Measuring and Evaluating Knowledge Assets: Assessing the effectiveness of knowledge management initiatives and the impact of knowledge on business outcomes. Key performance indicators (KPIs) may include knowledge usage, knowledge sharing rates, and the quality of decisions made using knowledge.

Knowledge Security: Protecting sensitive or confidential knowledge from unauthorized access and ensuring compliance with data protection and privacy regulations.

Technology and Tools: Employing knowledge management software, collaboration platforms, data analytics, and other tools to support knowledge-related activities.


Knowledge management is particularly important in knowledge-intensive industries, where the value of an organisation’s knowledge assets directly impacts its competitive advantage. By effectively managing knowledge, organizations can enhance employee productivity, foster innovation, reduce duplication of effort, improve decision-making, and adapt more quickly to changes in the business environment. Knowledge management also plays a critical role in retaining institutional knowledge as employees retire or move on to new roles, preserving the organisation’s intellectual capital.